Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurs when pathogens (infections) move from the vagina or cervix into the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or pelvis.

The prime pathogen is Chlamydia Trachomatis, with the possibility of many others, among them:

  • E-col
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  • Staphylococcus
  • Viruses
  • Streptococcus
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
  • Gardnerella vaginalis
  • Peptococcus species
  • Bacteroides species

Most of the above enter the body through sexual intercourse with a partner carrying an infection (STD's) It is common for more than one infection agent to be involved.

However other lesser possibilities are:

  • Childbirth
  • Miscarriage
  • Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD)
  • Abortion

The major risk factors are:

  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Past history of PID
  • Teenage Sexual activity
  • Past history/predisposition to a sexually transmitted infection
  • Insertion of an IUD
  • A male sexual partner with chlamydia or gonorrhea



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